How “Decisions” Really Get Made – Instantly

The research this picture is based on debunks pretty much all of our ideas about how humans, and other animals behavior. This is a great simple illustration of how behavior is triggered in between 50 – 150 millieseconds, copletely unconsciously and likely without any influence of consciousness, thinking, emotions, evaluation, higher level process or most […]

Science Definitions: The Problem with Idea of “Reward”

Economists like the term “reward” – animals are not as simple as econ models propose, of course. “..the term ‘‘reward’’ has been criticized in detail elsewhere. Though the term reward has meaning as a synonym for ‘‘reinforcer,’’ there is no consistent scientific meaning of ‘‘reward’’ when used to describe a neurobehavioral process; some employ it […]