These claims seem contradicted by other experiments in motor control but here it is below. Yale Seems firmly in the human exceptionalism camp as an institution and Kavli Institute funding the same. The money would seem better spent understanding how human brain > behavior processes are similar to other animals and thus much easier to study, duh…
“While we often think of the human brain as a highly innovative structure, it’s been surprising that so many of these regulatory elements seem to play a role in ancient processes important for building the cortex in all mammals…”
Yale Maps Evolutionary Changes of the Human Brain
New research from Yale University reveals a detailed catalog of human-specific changes in gene regulation and pinpoints several biological processes potentially guided by these regulatory elements that are crucial to human brain development.
Thousands of genetic “dimmer” switches, regions of DNA known as regulatory elements, were turned up high during human evolution in the developing cerebral cortex, according to new research from the Yale School of Medicine.
Unlike in rhesus monkeys and mice, these switches show increased activity in humans, where they may drive the expression of genes in the cerebral cortex, the region of the brain that is involved in conscious thought and language. This difference may explain why the structure and function of that part of the brain is so unique in humans compared to other mammals.
In addition to creating a rich and detailed catalog of human-specific changes in gene regulation, Noonan and his colleagues pinpointed several biological processes potentially guided by these regulatory elements that are crucial to human brain development.
“Building a more complex cortex likely involves several things: making more cells, modifying the functions of cortical areas, and changing the connections neurons make with each other. And the regulatory changes we found in humans are associated with those processes. This likely involves evolutionary modifications to cellular proliferation, cortical patterning, and other developmental processes that are generally well conserved across many species.”.
“While we often think of the human brain as a highly innovative structure, it’s been surprising that so many of these regulatory elements seem to play a role in ancient processes important for building the cortex in all mammals. However, this is often a hallmark of evolution, tinkering with the tools available to produce new features and functions.”
- …”Since 2002, a series of ten such studies have reported that individuals who used cannabis at the baseline evaluation had a greater risk of subsequently developing psychotic symptoms and indeed full-blown schizophrenia than non-users. Other studies of cannabis users who had sought medical care showed that they had a marked increased risk of subsequent schizophrenia. Such unanimity is rare in psychiatric epidemiology.”
- “Cannabis is now generally accepted as a cause of schizophrenia (though less so in North America, where this topic has received little attention). Argument does continue over just how significant cannabis-associated psychosis is. In different countries, the proportion of schizophrenia attributed to cannabis use ranges from 8 to 24 percent, depending, in part, on the prevalence of cannabis use.”
- “Nevertheless, the vast majority of users won’t become psychotic.…It appears that some people are especially vulnerable. Not surprisingly, people with a paranoid or “psychosis-prone” personality are at greatest risk, alongside people with a family history of psychosis. Research also suggests that inheriting certain variants of genes that influence the dopamine system, which is implicated in psychosis, may make some users especially susceptible…”
- “the increasing availability of high-potency types of cannabis explains why psychiatrists should be more concerned about cannabis now than they were in the 1960s and 1970s.”
- “In picking their way through the conflicting views, politicians and regulators need to recognize that “medicinal marijuana” has become largely a cover for introducing recreational use by the marijuana industry”
Appraising the Risks of Reefer Madness
By: Sir Robin Murray, M.D.
Editor’s Note: Studies that have tied cannabis use to schizophrenia in the developing brain are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to marijuana. Continue reading
Behavioral economics (BE) was invented by a couple of very rich non-profit foundation heads and Boards of Directors as a personal and ideological agenda to defend the failed ideas of classical economics, mainly the rationality dogma of human behavior. They accomplished this marketing and ideological goal by manufacturing false evidence supposdly proving that human behavior is “illogical.” They were, and still are, such clever marketers and ideologues that one of the hired guns, Dan Kahneman, a pretend intellectual and social scientist.
Further, the childishly simplistic notions of “nudges” and behavioral management was grabbed by governments in the desperation of the economic meltdown. Understandable. The con men tell folks what they already believe and want to believe.
The power/ideological agenda of BE is deeply reactionary and conservative – to “prove” that humans are “irrational/illogical” and therefore justify dishonest policies called “nudges.” But the evidence says differently. Let’s examine that, shall we?
Below is some evidence for debunking the precepts and practices of BE. Please disagree and debunk, with peer-reviewed citations. Continue reading
I predict Paul Cisek will be seen as the “Einstein” of behavioral theory. His findings contradict all of our cultural-cognitive and current academic myths and models, so the findings are pretty much ignored. He is also in Montreal so well outside of the industrial-neuroeconomics complex. Lucky for him! More to come….much more…
I will be working on polishing this post and many posts and articles from it……grrrrrrr
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 369: 20130479. Primary author: Paul Cisek e-mail: email@example.com
Neurophysiological studies of decision-making have focused primarily on elucidating the mechanisms of classic economic decisions, for which the relevant variables are the values of expected outcomes and action is simply the means of reporting the selected choice.
By contrast, here we focus on the particular challenges of embodied decision-making faced by animals interacting with their environment in real time. In such scenarios, the choices themselves as well as their relative costs and benefits are defined by the momentary geometry of the immediate environment and change continuously during ongoing activity. To deal with the demands of embodied activity, animals require an architecture in which the sensorimotor specification of potential actions, their valuation, selection and even execution can all take place in parallel. Continue reading
The core (false) promise of all magical beliefs is everyday language-based “Mind over matter.” and “Action at a difference.” Praying, to some god, is just subjective reports of individual experience. So is voodoo, belief in the tooth fairy, belief in free will, philosophy, etc.
Well, philosophy is just more of the same. It presumes that words and everyday language matter to human behavior and explain the world. Well, it doesn’t and never really has. But, it is a very popular marketing/sales promise – look at religion! VERY profitable. Economists make the same false promise.
Disclosure: My comments have been blocked from the Why Evolution Is True Site from the beginnings pretty much. Also, banned on many other sites and censored on Maestro Pigliucci’s site Scientia Salon, the master himself moderates my comments and requests for me to stop posting occasionally. All in good humor.
Although I did make a dry ironic comment about JC’s shirt once, I just post on the latest brain science research I read. That’s it. I also ask probing questions of other statements. I am direct and professional at all times, never an ad hominem or intemperate comment – wastes of time.
My experience is that website folks simply cannot tolerate the challenges to cultural and personal myths that just reporting brain research triggers. Continue reading
The total reset and tearing down of all accepted wisdom, including in the hallowed halls of government and academe is now mandatory based on brain research findings including there is no free will, consciousness and subjective experience likely being trivial and the continuity of basic biological processes of brain > behavior across all animals, of course. Also, it looks like all behavior is “decided” (not really decided though, switches just flip) in 140 ms. No time for any feelings or thoughts to do anything but be “post-play commentary.”
That will not happen for decades however. “Progress happens one funeral at a time.” – and everyone is living a whole lot longer. Likely progress has already slowed a lot. Too bad.