“…PTSD, in many ways, is an overlearned response to survive a threatening experience,”

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The amygdala, a brain area involved in associative learning, value encoding, and emotional responses, was particularly important.

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“If an event is otherwise highly enjoyable, pausing to take photographs will detract from your enjoyment, research finds. We get so focused on picture-taking, we miss the experience itself,”

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However, although smokers indicate that they smoke for stress relief and relaxation, some research suggests that smoking increases subjective stress levels and that smoking does not lead to stress relief but merely reverses the negative mood state caused by nicotine deprivation (Parrott, 1999). Stress levels of smokers vary widely throughout the day. Smokers have decreased subjective stress levels immediately after smoking a cigarette and increased stress levels between cigarettes when nicotine levels are low

“…the genome is an engine for generating diversity within certain bounds. This is clearly beneficial to the success of our species but at great cost to some individuals with rare diseases, which are therefore a collective responsibility we must strive to address.”

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“Our own species and its ancestors lived across a vast time span that we rarely think about in our everyday lives. Chimpanzees and bonobos are our closest living relatives, and our branch separated from theirs sometime between 5 and 10 million years ago. That’s the span of a hundred thousand human lifetimes, 300,000 human generations. We call the branch of primates that led to us the “hominins.””

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In other words, a diversity of hominin species once existed. Our tree was “bushy”. In the time before 2 million years ago, we haven’t yet found any fossil trace of hominins anywhere other than Africa. Our lineage had an African origin, it had a diversity of adaptations to ancient African environments, and for two thirds or more of this history, it appears that our ancestors and relatives were exclusively African.