Drugs, Booze and Cigs Killing More Americans Early


Between 1999 and 2014, premature mortality increased in white individuals and in American Indians and Alaska Natives.  Increases were highest in women and those aged 25–30 years.… Continue reading


PTSD Molecular Process


1) The stress of smelling a predator scent impairs neuropeptide Y release.
2) This reduction in neuropeptide Y release enhances short-term plasticity of TA synapses. 3) The enhanced plasticity, in turn, boosts the strength of that pathway to drive more spiking of CA1 nerve cells.
4) Increased spiking alters the hippocampal output, a changed output that may increase the consolidation of fear learning.

The Problem – “When you cast doubts on the existence of free will, you shake people’s worldview…The notion that we don’t have free will is not only counterintuitive but also threatening to people’s notions of their essence.”


But, if you pretend there is evidence for free will it is lying.  What is a professional to do?

Finally, here is a recent quote from Nora Volkow a brilliant scientist and head of the NIDA “To your question of [do we have free will and control over our behaviors] — my perspective on something like, this are we in control or not, is better to say and believe that we are in control whether we are or not. If we are not, there is nothing much we can do. We believe we are, more likely to an impact on our behaviors.”  !!??  So, we should lie and pretend?