A “Grammar of Action”


Brilliant idea – “intriguing hypothesis of a general ‘‘grammar of action’’, which constrains how a succession of movements needs to be ordered if they are to be perceived as a goal-directed action…”

A key property shared by stimuli in the speech, music and action domains is that they consist of discrete items (i.e. words, musical sounds, and movements) strung together in such a way that meaning builds up over the course of a sequence. Continue reading


“Personality” is Best Defined by Each Person’s Unique Movements


Human movement has been studied for decades, and dynamic laws of motion that are common to all humans have been derived. Yet, every individual moves differently from everyone else (faster/slower, harder/smoother, etc.). Continue reading

Delayed Effects of PTSD


a single instance of acute stress had no immediate effects on the amygdala of rats. But ten days later, these animals began to show increased anxiety, and delayed changes in the architecture of their brains, especially the amygdala. Continue reading

Parasite Stress and Cognitive Decline


“It seems that some of the very genetic mutations that help us succeed in more hazardous time periods and environments may actually become mismatched in our relatively safe and sterile post-industrial lifestyles,” Continue reading

“The brain represents the external world as specific maps of activity created by networks of neurons,”


“Most of these maps have been studied in the excitatory circuits of the brain because excitatory neurons in the cortex outnumber inhibitory neurons.” Continue reading

“…the Stone Age covers around 99% of our human technological history.”


The Stone Age indicates the large swathe of time during which stone was widely used to make implements. Continue reading