Human Brain Exceptional? Not: “For a long time it had been assumed that the basal ganglia in mammals, birds and reptiles was much more developed than in amphibians, fish and cyclostomes. The large similarities between the oldest group of anamniotes (lamprey) and mammals have, however, invalidated this assumption. “


Human Exceptionalism, Phooey! “…many aspects of the neural organisation of the vertebrate basal ganglia and corresponding structures in the fruitfly forebrain are similar”


This implies a common origin; an annelid worm has been suggested as a candidate. Clearly, a worm, as much as any other creature, needs to have a neural machinery to decide about foraging, when and how to move etc

Principles of Knowledge That Works to Solve Problems…

  1. “There is only one world: the natural world.
  2. The world evolves according to unbroken patterns, the laws of nature
  3. The only reliable way of learning about the world is by observing it.”

“People who are more avoidant of pathogens are more politically conservative, as are nations with greater parasite stress.”


We find that national parasite stress and individual disgust sensitivity relate more strongly to adherence to traditional norms than they relate to support for barriers between social groups. These results suggest that the relationship between pathogens and politics reflects intragroup motivations more than intergroup motivations. Continue reading

International Brain Station


“elevate brain science as a foreign policy priority. The world confronts tremendous social and economic burdens derived from brain diseases, with an estimated global cost of $6 trillion USD spent on issues related to mental illness alone by 2030.
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