“Based on which chemical they secrete, each nerve cell in a nerve pathway “decides” whether a message travels onward. For example, nerve cells that tell the next cell in line to pass on and amplify a message are excitatory; those that stop messages are inhibitory.”

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“‘It is only in the last century that modern medicine has allowed human populations to be treated for disease causing worms.”

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The Cellular Brain Science of Attraction

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“Our results offer the first evidence that pharmacological manipulation of the human MOR system affects both aesthetic evaluation of and motivation for viewing opposite-sex faces. Continue reading

“…μ-opioid (MOR) neurotransmission can increase both hedonic value (‘liking’) and motivational salience (‘wanting’) of rewards. When several rewards are available, MOR agonism increases and antagonism decreases preference specifically for the most valuable option…”

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Booze Totally Screws the Brain — At the Molecular Level

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This is a bit geeky, but look up words you don’t know.  It is very mechanical and not infinitely complex. Take Away – Pretty much the g-protein receptors get fried.  lol, well, that is pretty geeky

Alcoholism is a disease of chronic relapse, consisting of repeated bouts of excessive intake and abstinence, resulting in withdrawal symptoms that contribute to the resumption of heavy drinking…human alcoholics report increased anxiety and compulsive behaviors during abstinence periods, which correlate with escalated ethanol consumption …Examination of these symptoms in a mouse model of alcohol use disorders showed …escalated ethanol intake during abstinence.

…Dopamine transmission is markedly attenuated after chronic ethanol exposure …A previous study reported reduced dopamine terminal function in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) …suggesting a link between attenuated accumbal function and augmented ethanol intake. As the dopamine system has been implicated as an important regulator of ethanol drinking and anxiety/compulsive- like behaviors, it is possible that dysregulated dopamine transmission may underlie chronic ethanol-induced increases in these behaviors.

…Dopamine transmission in the NAc is regulated by a variety of receptors, including kappa opioid receptors (KORs). Continue reading

An Unconscious Biological Driver for Ethnic Hatred and Trump’s Popularity: Fear of Disease

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What is the origin of individual differences in ideology and personality? According to the parasite stress hypothesis, the structure of a society and the values of individuals within it are both influenced by the prevalence of infectious disease within the society’s geographical region.

High levels of infection threat are associated with more ethnocentric and collectivist social structures and greater adherence to social norms, as well as with socially conservative political ideology and less open but more conscientious personalities.
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“…75% of the victims of the Holocaust lived within the prewar borders of three countries: Poland, Lithuania, and the Soviet Ukraine.”

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“He (Tim Snyder) juxtaposes to that a less generally familiar but to historians of Eastern Europe well known fact, namely that these same places were the settings in the 1930s and again in the interval between 1939 and 1941 of enormous carnage carried out at Stalin’s behest, most of it rooted in ethnic mistrust. And then he shows in heart-breaking detail what these two facts had to do with one another. Continue reading