Simple Sea Sponges Were Earth’s First Animals – Sea sponges appeared on our planet about 640 million years ago, much earlier than any other animal
Any analysis of behavior in any species and any setting must adhere to these principals. 1.Evidence-Based – Evolutionary biology is ruled by few logical principles, each of which has repeatedly withstood rigorous empirical and observational testing and challenges. These principles are the basis for modern medicine and organic chemistry and biological sciences. 2. Scalability – […]
Modern humans and Neanderthals diverged 550,000-765,000 years ago.
prominent scientific journals have published evidence of genetic shifts in humans over the last 10,000 years — apparently in response humankind’s transition to agriculture.
“…information about rewards is being sent to the visual cortex to indicate which stimuli have been associated with rewards…reward-only trials were found to strengthen the cue-reward associations…rewards can be associated with stimuli over longer time scales than previously thought… a reward signal is being sent to the visual cortex via dopamine,”