By definition, knowledge is statements that can predict measurable events in the future. Other statements are merely ones of opinion or subjective reports of claimed private and personal experiences. Many or common and popular subjective reports/statements using common, everyday words and syntax we define as cultural beliefs.Cultural beliefs form ideologies. Ideological statements can never be proven or disproven. Empirical or evidence-based statements must be disprovable, thus cannot and do not fit the definition of beliefs and ideology. Thus, there is no such belief system as “scientism” since, any “scientific” statement/claim must be disprovable. Philosophical statements can never be proven or disproven.
Beliefs fit the definition of magical statements or pretending. The core of all magical statements/beliefs is “Mind over matter.” or really just words over matter. I say something/or think something and it effects nature, at a distance. Simple magic.
Prayer, philosophical statements, fantasy statements, political statements, moral and ethical statements, supernatural statements, economic and historical statements, etc. are all claims about no things or pretend. We pretend that logic is a universal quality of empirical reality or that economic statements and claims are accurate descriptions of events, gods exists, so do tooth faires, that there are ethical universals, etc.
There is experimental brain research to further support these statements but most of them are merely definitional and everyday usage conventions and norms.