Outline of Stress Response

“Stress is defined as a state of real or perceived threat to homeostasis. The principal effectors of the stress system are corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine vasopressin, the proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides α-melanocyte–stimulating hormone and β-endorphin, the glucocorticoids, and the catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine.   Appropriate responsiveness of the stress system to stressors is a crucial prerequisite for […]

The Grandmother Hypothesis – Grandmothers Created Humans (Of Course THEY Knew That!)

Look like a very few bubbas, living longer and helping mom raise the kids moved us from chimps to Justin Beiber!  How is this relevant to marketing today? Grandmas made humans live longer   Oct. 23, 2012 The theory says that because a few older women among human ancestors began caring for their grandchildren, their […]

Neuron Effects of Addiction

From Acute Drug Effects to Persistent Synaptic Adaptations Addictive drugs mediate their reinforcing properties by targeting the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system, which we define as including the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and its major targets, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Despite their chemical diversity and individual molecular targets, all addictive drugs have […]

Childhood Neglect and Abuse Has Lifelong Genetic Affects – Sadly

  Tough times in childhood ‘mark’ many genes Adversity during childhood can affect broad regions of brain DNA in both rodents and humans, according to research. The findings offer strong evidence for a biological process that embeds social experience in DNA—affecting not just a few genes but entire gene networks. MCGILL (CAN) — There’s a […]